A. Introduction: Wave Structure, Instantaneous Action, and the Natural Laws
The origins of the natural laws from the Wave Structure of Matter are new topics in science. To study
them you must first reject the ancient Democritus particle made of 'substances' and replace it with the correct quantum wave structure of matter. The rules of quantum waves are simple and easy to visualize.
The hard part is getting rid of old thinking habits, particularly 'matter substance,' and replacing it with 'wave structure.' One major fault of the
particle 'matter substance' concept was that it did not provide answers to fundamental questions like: How are the basic units of time, length, and mass formed? What is the mechanism of energy
exchange? What is the origin of the natural laws? What is a photon? What is a particle? The review below describes how the Wave Structure of Matter provides these answers.
The key to understanding 'instantaneous action' is recognition of two ways of energy transfer between quantum structures. One way is direct, source and receiver undergo a resonant exchange. In
the other way, the quantum wave medium acts as an intermediate 'broker' in the exchange. It is the broker behavior which leads to the appearance of instantaneous energy transfer. These two will be discussed
below when explaining 'instantaneous action.'
The extraordinary revelation of the quantum universe is that the laws of physics are properties of the quantum wave
medium which itself is formed from waves of all other matter. Thus, all science grows out of the medium's properties. As we learn more about it, prepare yourself for a fascinating adventure.
B. History of the Wave Structure of Matter
The search for the structure of the electron started over a century ago in H.A. Lorentz's book, Theory of the Electron
(1909) . In 1876, the famous geometer-mathematician Clifford suggested that all physical laws were the result of undulations (waves) in the fabric of space .
Ernst Mach convinced Einstein that any
theory of the structure of the universe must contain his inertia principle , but Einstein could not incorporate it into relativity because relativity has no medium of communication. Einstein knew this was the
weakness of relativity and suggested that matter was a communicating wave structure. In 1924, Einstein's friend, Hans Tetrode, was the first to propose that energy transfer required two-way communication between
Louis Duc de Broglie proposed a wavelength l=h/p for the quantum waves of an electron containing an oscillator of frequency f = mc2/h . Nobel laureate Paul Dirac, who developed
much of the theory describing the quantum waves of the electron, was never satisfied with the point-particle electron because the Coulomb force required a mathematical correction termed
"renormalization." In 1937 he wrote, "This is just not sensible mathematics. Sensible mathematics involves neglecting a quantity when it turns out to be small — not neglecting it because it is
infinitely large and you do not want it! " 
Weyl, Clifford, Einstein, and Schroedinger agreed that the puzzle of matter will be found in the structure of space, not in point-like bits of matter
. They speculated, "What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space. The complexity of physics and cosmology is just a special
geometry." This idea had an enduring appeal because of its economy of concepts and simplicity of design.
In 1945, Wheeler and Feynman represented a charged particle by assuming a pair of spherical inward and
outward electromagnetic waves . Their use of advanced (inward) waves is an apparent violation of the principle of causality, "Events cannot occur before their causes." Wheeler and Feynman showed
that the puzzling inward waves do not violate causality because they are not directly observable. Their work pioneered a key concept that every particle sends outward quantum waves and receives a 'Response from
the Universe,' as described later.
Phipps hypothesized that the electron-positron is the fundamental particle of the universe . He reasoned that the infinite extent of charge forces were more fundamental than
local effects of baryons. Cramer used an analogy of the inward and outward waves of the Wheeler-Feynman electron to interpret the waves of classical quantum theory as real, in contrast to the older unreal
"probability wave."  He named them an offer-wave (outward) and a response-wave (inward). In 1990-98, Wolff expanded these ideas and showed the origin of the natural laws [11-26]. In 1996, he
pointed out that the Wave Structure of Matter may have anti-particles with anti-gravity. This may remove objections to Hannes Alven's book, Worlds and Anti-Worlds
, and suggests a solution for the redshift and missing matter paradoxes.
C. Questioning the Natural Laws
As recently as ten years ago we did not know where natural laws come from or even that it was possible to find
out. Some scientists believed, in a religious fashion, that we were not allowed to know, that we must just accept the empirical laws given to us by nature. Still others believed that the natural laws were
already complete and to obtain further understanding all we needed to do was manipulate them mathematically. Now the origin is found in the behavior of the Wave Structure of Matter. Let's review the basic
requirements of the laws by asking questions about their behavior [19, 21, 24].
Particles, Laws, and the Universe are Mutually Dependent. What is the connection between particles and the universe?
Without particles the physical universe is undefined because our definition of universe is a collection of particles or objects and their distribution. Similarly, the natural laws are meaningless without particles
because laws require particles upon which to operate. The converse is also true: we cannot identify a particle and its properties without the force laws to locate and measure it. Thus the cosmos,
particles, and laws form a trilogy, each dependent on the others for its properties. This trilogy of laws, particles and the cosmos can prevail only if there exists a medium of communication linking each
particle to all other particles in that universe. The communication link must establish a uniform measure of time and length for all matter.
Mach's Principle. The above concept, that laws and
particles were dependent on the universe, had its first birth with Ernst Mach and Bishop Berkeley 100 years ago, who explained Newton's law of inertia, F = ma. At that time, the unknown origin of
Newton's law of inertia attracted frequent attention. Mach boldly suggested that inertia depends upon the existence of the distant stars . His reason arose from two fundamentally different methods of
measuring a body's rotational inertia. First, without looking at the sky, one can measure the centrifugal force on a rotating mass m and use Newton's Law in the form F = mv2/r to find
circumferential speed, v. The second method compares the object's angular positions with the distant stars. Mysteriously, both methods give exactly the same result. Mach reasoned that there must be a
causal connection between the distant matter in the universe and inertia. He asserted: The laws of inertia are established by all the matter of the universe.
It is now known that not only was Mach correct, but his concept applies to all the other laws as well.
Scales of Measurement. Consider two particles in space, Figure 1. They obey natural laws
interacting with each other. We know that the laws involve scales of time, length, and mass. How are scales established and communicated between two particles? What process measures the distance
between them, establishes the force, and guides each particle to the vector of acceleration it must undergo? Consider the length scale used by the particles. Every particle must have access to the same
length scale, otherwise interactions would be chaotic, not the orderly laws we observe obeyed by all particles. But we know if no other matter is present, length scales are meaningless since length is a
relative measure. Thus the length scale and the laws which use it must depend on the existence of other matter.
The Cosmic Clock. The quantum wave medium pervading all
space is common to all particles and establishes the cosmic clock. Such clocks are alike because the homogeneity of the medium of the waves produces a fixed wave frequency. As
suggested by deBroglie, the cosmic clock is the well-known frequency of the electron f = mc2/h . This frequency is a property of the quantum wave medium and, thus, it is the same
for all particles. Similarly the uniform quantum wave medium also provides a measure of length - the electron wavelength.
Figure 1. How do Force Laws Operate?
Two particles move towards each other obeying a law. How is the direction found? How is the separation measured? What establishes length scales? Similar questions apply to time. Every particle, everywhere, has to have access to the same clock in order to carry out orderly laws in the cosmos. Where is the universal clock? How is time communicated among all particles? They cannot behave independently so there must exist a common clock related to all the matter of the universe.
Finding Range and Location. The spherical wave structure
of particles provides range and location information for the force laws (see Figure 3). Everyone who has learned nautical navigation knows that the curvature of a wave front is sufficient
to determine the range and position of the center of the source of the wave fronts. This is the simple mechanism available to two particles to find their relative range and position.
D. Properties of the Quantum Wave Medium [19,21,24]
Property 1. Dimension scales are a property of the ensemble of matter.
The scales of length and mass, for any particle if alone in the universe, would be meaningless because scales of measure can only be defined by comparison with
other matter. For example, at least six separated particles are necessary to crudely define length in a 3D space. Thus the
scale of length requires the existence of an ensemble of particles. There is no way to choose a special ensemble, thus the
required ensemble must include all observable matter. This ensemble creates the quantum wave medium observed in Mach's
Principle. The ensemble has to be assigned great importance because time, length and mass are the basic scales used to describe all science and engineering.
Property 2. Interacting particles must communicate with each other. Force laws between two particles cannot
operate unless they are aware of each other's location. Continual two-way communication between particles is required to
execute the laws of nature. This communication takes place by spherical waves in the space (quantum wave medium) between the particles.
Property 3. The scale of time requires a cosmological clock.
Laws cannot operate if particles have no reference to a cosmological clock. Each particle must have a way to relate its own time-related behavior with other particles. Nature's
cosmological clock is the frequency of quantum waves in the uniform quantum wave medium common to all particles.
Property 4. Mach's Extended Principle.
The only possible reference for changing motion (acceleration or rotation) is the entire ensemble of matter in a universe, as proposed by Ernst Mach in 1883. Not only inertia, but other laws of physics
must similarly depend on the matter of the universe mediated by the quantum wave medium.
Property 5. Natural constants.
The extension of Mach's Principle shows that the natural constants such as c, h, m, and e also depend on the quantum wave medium. These constants determine measurable properties of solids and
electromagnetism: For example, the solid crystal array, shown in Figure 2, is a space matrix of atoms held rigidly in space.
How are the atoms suspended in space? We must conclude that the crystal's rigidity derives from fixed standing quantum
waves propagating in a rigid quantum wave medium. Calculations for diamonds and nuclear structure yields an enormous rigidity.
Property 6. Particles are wave structures.
The wave structures ar